40 Core Exercises for Kids – Fun in Occupational Therapy

Core Exercises for Kids

Core exercises for kids help develop postural stability needed for fine motor activities in school and at home.  An occupational therapist values core strength to help improve attention and focus in students.  Free PDF printable available. Check out the no equipment exercises, games and simple toys, and playground equipment exercises.

As a school based occupational therapist, I help run a program for a school district’s kindergarten and first grade classes.  The program starts with a discussion about core strength and posture.  

I talk to the students and teachers about the importance of strong core muscles.  I talk about how poor core strength impacts kids’ attention and fine motor skills. 

During my whole class lesson, the kids were attentive… at first. 

They wiggled into their best upright positions. They held them for a moment… before relaxing, shifting position, leaning for support, etc.

I talked about how the shoulders need to be strong in order to help the hands.  And then I shared simple exercises to help strengthen those muscles…

The teachers were shocked at how difficult the simple positions were for their students!  They had such poor core strength.  It was very eye opening.

And very sad.   

The students couldn’t even hold their arms straight out to the sides in a ‘T’ position.  Arm circles were torture!  Holding any static posture was so challenging! 

And MANY struggled lying on their stomachs in a prone position (think of tummy time in babies.)

Why do Kids Need Core Strength and Core Stability?

Kids need core strength to help them sit with good posture in a chair.  Good posture helps kids pay attention better. Placing their feet on the floor gives a good stable base for the core.

Strong core muscles help with gross motor skills and balancing during physical activities. 

Additionally, strong core muscles and good core stability helps kids use their hands better for fine motor tasks.   They have more success with hand strength and hand dexterity during writing, cutting, and self-help tasks. 

If children have good core strength and good core stability, they can sit upright without fatigue.  If they’re not getting physically tired, they can focus and attend better. 

As a pediatric OT, I see too many kids who have poor core strength and who lack postural stability.  I see the impact that it has on performance in the classroom.

Students with a weak core have a hard time sitting still or sitting upright.  They lean on their desks or rest their head in their hands. 

Often times, teachers think that there is a “sensory difficulty.”  This makes total sense because the kids are constantly fidgeting.

However, often the fidgeting and constant moving in the chair is because their muscles get tired.  They simply have trouble sitting upright. 

Their core muscles are weak!  They just need core strengthening activities as a part of their daily routine. 

Core Exercises for Kids

Why Do Kids Lack Core Strength and Need Core Exercises?

In my experience, many avoidable factors contribute to weak core muscles in kids.  

These factors include changes in everyday activities such as increased sedentary play, decreased physical activities, decreased outdoor time, changes in playground equipment, and increased screen time.  These factors impact core strength, gross motor development, and fine motor skills. 

This also impacts balance skills, visual motor development, learning the sides of the body, and using both hands together. 

More and more babies are not getting adequate tummy time or floor time play that develops postural muscles.  They are placed in “containers” with toys right in front of them where their bodies don’t have to move or work much against gravity. 

Increased screen time in toddlers, preschoolers and kids greatly impacts development.  It encourages sedentary play that does not stimulate a child’s body and brain for proper development.  It prevents good posture from developing.

Decreased outdoor play and changes in playground equipment impact gross motor skills and balance skills and contribute to poor core stability. Not working on gross motor skills impacts basic skill building opportunities for a child’s body, brain and eyes.  Kids need movement to enhance learning!

These all contribute to decreased sensory motor development which significantly impacts learning.  

This is sad to see, but there are some simple ways to help kids’ bodies and brains:


Core exercises for kids are easy, fun, and helpful.  As a school-based occupational therapist, I see the importance of using these core exercises for ALL students.   Add them to your brain breaks or use them in between lessons.  

Preschool and kindergarten through middle school students can benefit from participation in these core strengthening activities. 

40 Fun Core Strength Exercises for Kids

The core exercises for kids are organized into three categories: no equipment, using simple games / tools, and activities and gross motor exercises on the playground or at the park.  They’re a great way to provide your students with important foundational strength to work on various muscle groups for the core. 

Easy Core Exercises for Kids – No Equipment Needed!

1) Stretching

Stand or sit upright with arms straight above head.  Lean slowly to one side and hold.  Repeat on the other side.  Keep feet still for a strong stable base. 

2) Crab Walk

Starting position: on the floor, stomach up, hands and feet on the floor.  Have students move in a forward direction (preferably in a straight line) in the classroom for safety.  This is a favorite activity that strengthens the entire body.

3) Plank

Arms straight.  Hands and toes on the floor.  Body straight from shoulders to heels.

4) Side Plank

One hand and same side foot on the floor.  Arms are straight and make a T.  

5) Knee Lifts Sitting in Chair

Sit tall, hold arms out in front.  Lift each knee.  Straighten legs or hold both legs up for an added challenge.  When students develop strong core muscles, draw letters or numbers in the air with the toes.

6) Leg Scissors

Sit on the floor or sit in a chair with legs stretched out.  Lean back into arms.  Hands support the body with arms next to the trunk.  Straighten legs and cross feet over each other.  

7) Inchworm

Great challenge for kids!  Bear walk position: feet stay still while hands walk out as far as they can (into the plank position.)  Then hands stay still as feet walk up toward the hands.  Keep repeating.   Move the hands, then move the feet.

8) Crab Kicks

Crab walk position on the floor.  Kick legs up for counting or the alphabet.  To cross midline, have kids tap their foot over the other knee. 

If you want to keep the noise down, encourage kids to “control their bodies” and quietly tap their foot on the floor!

9) Bear Walk

Hands and feet walk around the room, to carpet or to centers with bottoms in the air.  Again, cue them to be quiet baby bears!

10) Arm Circles

Stand and hold arms out in a T position at shoulder level.  Make circles forward and then backward.  Try small fast circles or large slow circles. 

11) Military Crawl

On the stomach, pulling with the elbows and forearms.

12) Donkey Kicks

Hands and knees crawling position.  Slowly and carefully kicks legs upward – one at a time.  If space and skill permits, try both legs at the same time!

13) Kickstand

Hands and toes position.  Kick and hold one leg back and above the body.  Freeze for as long as possible.  Repeat other side.

14) Bicycle on Back

Lie on the back with head and neck curled up.  Bicycle legs in the air.  Add opposite arm movements for an additional abdominal exercise. 

15) Superman

Lie on the stomach.  Lift arms, upper body, and legs off the floor and hold.  The lower abdomen should be the only part of the body touching the floor.  This exercise is a great way to strengthen the back muscles. 

16) Rocking Egg

Lie on the back.  Bring knees up and hug with hands.  Rock back and forth and side to side.  This is great for the abdominal muscles. 

17) Vertical Surface Activities

Use empty walls or doors for paper pencil tasks.  Draw and write on chalkboards or whiteboards.

18) Prone Activities

Lie on the stomach on the floor for activities.  Tummy time is not just for babies!  Please continue to encourage elementary kids to be on their bellies.  Be sure to have a child lie on their stomach while keeping the head up and the hands down. 

19) Wheelbarrow Walking

Partner up for a wheelbarrow.  The ‘holder’ also gets a core and shoulder workout!

Core Strength Exercises for Kids – Using Games and Simple Equipment

20) Twister

Stretching and holding positions in Twister are great for the core.  Additionally, this game gives extra practice for left-right awareness.  

21) Bouncing on a Hop Ball

Balancing while on a hop ball works on all of the core muscles.  The bouncing and proprioceptive input wakes up and activates all the muscles along the spine. 

22) Sitting and Bouncing on a Therapy Ball

A stationary ball can be used in the classroom or at a desk for homework.  The added small movements while sitting keep the brain alert.  Gently bouncing on the ball stimulates the postural muscles. 

23) Rocking Side to Side on A Ball

Sitting with feet in front and rocking side to side improves balance and strength along the sides of the trunk.

24) Sitting on a T-Stool or Balance Stool

This requires more skill to stay upright.  I’ve used t-stools made from a 2×4 board with preschool students.  It’s amazing how much it helps with attention!

25) Balloon Kicks

Kids can hold a balloon hanging on a string and kick it (either standing or in a crab walk position.)  Or they can try to gently kick the balloon while standing to see how many times they tap it before it hits the ground.

26) Paper Plate Skating

Each foot stands in the middle of a paper plate.  Kids slide their feet to move.  Easy way to transition down a hall or across a room.  Add other scavenger hunt activities to make it a learning game. 

27) Pass a Heavy Ball Down a Line

Kids stand in a line, shoulder to shoulder, facing the same direction.  Encourage kids to keep their core still as the cross midline to pass the ball to the left or right.  Add a challenge by having them stand in a line, one student behind another. 

28) Sit on Scooter

Use a gym scooter; kids sit and hold the handles as they use their feet to move.

29) Prone on a Scooter

This is one of my favorite postural exercises that also provides great heavy work and proprioceptive inputLINK.  Kids lie on their bellies on the scooter.  They keep their feet in the air and pull ONLY with the arms.

30) Stickers on Shoes

Place 3-6 stickers on each shoe.  Kids stand and take one sticker from each foot, one at a time (alternate feet.) 

Core Strength Exercises for Kids – Using Playground Equipment

31) Swinging

Sit on a flat thin swing.  Hold on the sides and pump independently.  

32) Disc Swing

Sit with ankles crossed and arms holding the rope.  Move in a variety of directions.

33) Monkey Bar Knee Lifts

Hang on monkey bars with arms and lift and lower knees.  For added work, keep legs straight.

34) Glider Knee Lifts

Hold on the glider bar and pull knees up before sliding across. 

35) Ladder Climbing

Climbing a ladder is great for alternating leg and arm movements.  It helps kids stabilize their core as they climb.

36) Rock Wall Climbing

Just like climbing but it adds stretching to the sides of the trunk, balance and problem solving.

37) Climbing up a Slide

This breaks the rules of some playgrounds but the heavy work is great for the arms.  And it’s good for the core.

38) Pushing Activities

The core engages as the arms perform this heavy work task.  Changing directions activates more core muscles.

39) Pulling Activities

Hold and pull heavy objects in various directions.  The farther the hands are from the body, the harder the core has to work.

40) Rowing with a Stick

Sit on a swing and use a large stick.  Place two hands on it and reach side to side to push off the ground.  Or, use a large outdoor scooter; sit cross legged and use the stick to row. 

This post list was created into a free printable for your convenience.  All 40 core strengthening activities put together by an occupational therapist are listed on the handout.  Some of these tasks can be part of an obstacle course during indoor recess or during a transition. Click on the link below to get your free copy.

Do You Need More Exercises for Your Kids?

I’ve had great feedback on the 8-week classroom exercise program.  It includes core exercises, crossing midline, sensory activities for learning, visual activities, hand dexterity, and more!

It shares a series of exercises to practice every day for 8 weeks.

Use these specific occupational therapy exercises to improve:

Attention… focus… core stability… crossing midline… sensory processing… visual development… & more… Click for more info!

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School-Based OT

Amy Hathaway MOT, OTR/L, CIMI-2 is a licensed and registered occupational therapist.  She is the founder of Develop Learn Grow. 

Amy has 22 years of experience as a pediatric occupational therapist.   She enjoys collaborating with teachers, parents, therapists, administrators, and support staff in preschools & schools, as well as coaching and guiding parents of infants and toddlers in their homes.

She is married and has three children.  Click to read Amy’s bio.  

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